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Flows - advanced topics

Have you been to Clevelinnati? No? Clevelinnati can be found at the geometric midpoint between Cleveland and Cincinnati. What's that, you say it's not on the map? Well, no worries. Now that I've defined Clevelinnati for you, you'll know exactly how to get to get there... As long as Cleveland stays still.

Previously, we explored the capabilities of flows. We discussed a flow which derives the area of a room from its dimensions:

{:id :kitchen-area :inputs {:w [:kitchen :width] :h [:kitchen :length]} :output (fn [{:keys [w h]}] (* w h)) :path [:kitchen :area] :live-inputs {:tab [:tab]} :live? (fn [{:keys [tab]}] (= tab :kitchen))}

Here, we'll consider the nuances of re-frame's reactive model, and how flows stand to solve some of its fundamental shortcomings.

Introducing yet another demo app! Turns out, we were measuring the kitchen to fill it with balloons. It's a balloon prank planner app. Consider the following:

(rf/reg-sub ::kitchen-area (fn [db _] (get-in db [:kitchen :area]))) (rf/reg-sub ::kitchen-height (fn [db _] (get-in db [:kitchen :height]))) (rf/reg-sub ::kitchen-volume (fn [_] [(rf/subscribe [::kitchen-area]) (rf/subscribe [::kitchen-height])]) (fn [[area height] _] (* area height))) (rf/reg-sub ::num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen (fn [_] [(rf/subscribe [::kitchen-volume])]) (fn [[volume] _] (let [std-balloon-volume 2.5] (/ volume std-balloon-volume)))) (rf/reg-event-fx ::order-ballons-for-kitchen-prank (fn [{:keys [balloons-per-bag db] :as cofx} _] (let [num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen :??? ;; How can I get this value??? num-bags-to-buy (js/Math.ceil (/ num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen balloons-per-bag))] {:fx [[:amazon {:fn :order :sku :balloon-bag :ct num-bags-to-buy}]]})))

How can we get a correct value for num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen? You might try calling (rf/subscribe [::num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen]), but re-frame comes back with a warning about reactive context, and memory leaks... oh my!

Reactive context

To know if a thing has changed, you have to remember what it was. To propagate change from one identity to the another, you have to remember their relationship (a watchable). Memory is state. Remembering is a side-effect.

Reagent does this. Its main constructs - reactive atom, and component - are stateful, impure. We depend on this memory. It abstracts the essential complexity of reactive programming.

Reagent manages atoms and components with an event loop. Only in the context of this loop can we be sure reagent's memory is consistent. Literally, this is called *ratom-context*.

Generally, *ratom-context* only has value during the evaluation of a component function (i.e., at "render time"). When *ratom-context* has no value, reactive atoms behave differently.

You can simply call reagent.ratom/reactive? to find out whether your code is running in a reactive context.

Reactive context in re-frame

Here's where re-frame enters the picture:

  • An event handler is a pure function, with no reactive context.
  • A subscription handler is pure, too.
  • A subscription, on the other hand, is a reactive atom.
  • Calling subscribe has the side-effect of creating a subscription.

Outside of a reactive context, a subscription's behavior differs: Not only the behavior of the reactive atom, but also its caching behavior.

Reactive context in your app

Subscriptions and handlers differ in purity and runtime context. This means they have a coloring problem.

We express some business logic with subscriptions, and some with events. This introduces the coloring problem to our business domain.

We can ignore the problem in some cases, but the essential consequence of calling subscribe in an event handler is an unsafe cache. Calling subscribe allocates physical memory on the client, and re-frame has no way to deallocate it. This puts us back in C territory.

Instead, to safely get a value for num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen, we have to duplicate the business logic that we wrote into our subscription, along with the entire subgraph of subscription inputs:

(rf/reg-event-fx ::order-ballons-for-kitchen-prank (fn [{:keys [balloons-per-bag db] :as cofx} _] (let [kitchen-area (get-in db [:kitchen :area]) kitchen-height (get-in db [:kitchen :height]) kitchen-volume (* area height) ;; eyelids start drooping here std-balloon-volume 2.5 num-balloons (/ kitchen-volume std-balloon-volume) num-bags-to-buy (js/Math.ceil (/ num-baloons balloons-per-bag))] {:fx [[:amazon {:fn :order :sku :balloon-bag :ct num-bags-to-buy}]]})))

Not only have we drenched our code, but now it has to do all our calculations twice.

Of course you can design around the problem, but at what cost? We sympathize with you developers, for the hours you may have spent poring over an event handler, just to re-write the code as a subscription, and vice-versa.


Subscriptions have a built-in caching mechanism, which stores the value as long as there is a component in the render tree which uses it. Basically, when components call subscribe with a particular query-v, re-frame sets up a callback. When those components unmount, this callback deletes the stored value. It removes the subscription from the graph, so that it will no longer recalculate. This is a form of reference counting - once the last subscribing component unmounts, then the subscription is freed.

This often works as intended, and nothing gets in our way. It's elegant in a sense - a view requires certain values, and those values only matter when the view exists. And vice versa. But when these values are expensive to produce or store, their existence starts to matter. The fact that some view is creating and destroying them starts to seem arbitrary. Subscriptions don't need to couple their behavior with that of their calling components.

The easy, automatic lifecycle behavior of subscriptions comes with a coupling of concerns. You can't directly control this lifecycle. You have to contol it by proxy, by mounting and unmounting your views. You can't think about your signal graph without thinking about views first.

The app-db represents your business state, and signals represent outcomes of your business logic. Views are just window dressing. We're tired of designing our whole business to change every time we wash the windows!


A layer-2 subscription basically names an app-db path. What does a layer-3 subscription name?

A materialized view of data, or a derived value.

Subscriptions occupy their own semantic territory, separate from app-db. Only within view functions (and other subscriptions) can we access this domain. Outside of views, they form an impenetrable blob.

So, re-frame is simple. app-db represents and names the state of your app. Except, so does this network of subscription names. But you can't always use those, only sometimes.

Signal graph state

Here's the story we like to tell about re-frame:

  • User Actions cause Events
  • Events cause Effects
  • Effects cause State Changes
  • State changes cause View Rendering

Turns out, it's not so simple. Not only do state changes cause view rendering, but view rendering also causes state changes. Specifically, render logic changes the state of subscriptions.

Your app's actual story might go something like this:

An event fires. A subscription runs. An outer component passes new props to an inner one. A reaction runs. Another reaction runs. A component unmounts. That subscription disposes, clearing its cache.

Sound familiar?

Then, the same event fires. Another component mounts. The same subscription runs. Its calculation is heavy, so your app lags every time. "Wait," you ask, "what happened to the cache? Why is my subscription recalculating when its inputs are the same?" After a lot of headscratching, you find out it's because the subscription itself is not the same. Render logic caused it to dispose, and a new one took its place.

This isn't a bug, nor is it inevitable, but in our experience, complexity adds up fast. Once Reagent, Re-frame and React begin to share the concern of reactive dataflow, they can race, or play chicken. I'll react if you do! Can't run me if I unmount you first! Can't unmount me if I run you first!

When a view calls subscribe, it creates a reaction. When that view unmounts, it frees the reaction. These are side-effects on the signal graph (that is, the graph of all subscriptions which are actively re-calculating their output when their inputs change, and storing that value).

event -> app-db -> signals -> view -> event
                                  ∟-> signal graph -> signals -> view

Something is looping in on itself here:

  • The value of app-db determines when a view lives or dies.
  • And, the value of a view determines when a signal lives or dies.
  • And, the value of a signal determines when a view lives or dies.

If views derive solely from app-db, when why must signals derive from views? Why not simply have everything derive from app-db?

event -> app-db -> signal graph -> signals -> view -> event

A better way

Here's the good news about flows:

You can access a flow's output value any time, anywhere, since flows are controlled by re-frame/interceptors, not reagent/reactions. Instead of thinking about reactive context, just think about the outcome of the latest event. If you know app-db, you know your flow value. You can also subscribe to flows.

If you know a flow's name, you know its location, since flows store their output in app-db, at a static path. It doesn't matter what other flows & paths it depends on. The value you need simply stays where you put it.

A flow's lifecycle is a pure function of app-db. That means you explicitly define when a flow lives, dies, is registered or cleared. You do this directly, not via your component tree.

Like many Clojure patterns, flows are both nested and flat. Even though ::num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen depends on other flows, we can access it directly:

(rf/reg-flow {:id ::kitchen-volume :inputs {:area [:kitchen :area] :height [:kitchen :height]} :output (fn [{:keys [area height]}] (* area height)) :path [:kitchen :volume]}) (rf/reg-flow {:id ::num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen :inputs {:volume (rf/flow<- ::kitchen-volume)} :output (fn [{:keys [volume]}] (let [std-balloon-volume 2.5] (/ volume std-balloon-volume)))}) (rf/reg-event-fx ::order-ballons-for-kitchen-prank (fn [{:keys [balloons-per-bag] :as cofx} _] (let [num-balloons (rf/get-flow db ::num-balloons-to-fill-kitchen) ;; easy! num-bags-to-buy (js/Math.ceil (/ num-balloons balloons-per-bag))] {:fx [[:amazon {:fn :order :sku :balloon-bag :ct num-bags-to-buy}]]})))