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On Dynamics

As a programmer works, they often need to reason about the runtime dynamics of their code. They'll be staring, without seeing, at a spot in space, and in their heads, they'll be performing a runtime simulation of their code.

But this is hard, even for Dijkstra.

Our intellectual powers are rather geared to master static relations
and our powers to visualise processes evolving in time are relatively
poorly developed.

-- Dijkstra

The Claim

re-frame has a simple dynamic process

It is the purpose of this page to explain and justify this claim.

There's no more important point to make about re-frame than this one

re-frame was designed to deliver a good developer experience. This is the top design goal and, in this pursuit, tradeoffs are made. Even functional purity was sacrificed in places (gasp!).

Almost nothing contributes to this goal more than re-frame presenting "a simple dynamic model". Almost nothing makes a programmer's job easier than a simple dynamic model. Almost nothing reduces bugs more than a simple dynamic model.

On Dynamics

Some scientific fields include the word "dynamics" in their name: Hydrodynamics, Thermodynamics and Social Dynamics. It means the participants observe how certain systems change over time/space and then model the causes.

So, how about our systems? A Web App is a "sequential process". Over time, it will shift from one State to another, and consequently, often from one behaviour to another. The "dynamics" arise from Computation and State interacting across time.

State is effectively congealed time - history materialised - and it is moulded by rounds of Computation. However, it isn't all one way. Although Computation creates State, it is itself controlled by that State. For example, predicates on State determine which branches of Computation execute. So, there's a feedback loop between the two.

Oh, no! Did someone just say feedback loop? That's bad, right?

For a programmer trying to mentally simulate a State/Computation feedback process, there can be a lot to juggle, quickly putting them at the limits of their cognitive budget.

Certain kinds of interactions between time, State & Computation reduce dynamic complexity, making mental simulations easier, while others do the opposite and make it virtually impossible. Any systems on the "impossible" end of that continuum will breed nasty bugs and be scary to maintain.

To understand a program, you must become both the machine and the program.

-- Alan Perlis

Dynamic vs Static Concerns

Programmers are surprisingly focused on the static aspect of their systems. For example, they talk about DRY, line count, and "cohesion vs coupling". Sure, yes, that's useful, but perhaps we should pay more attention to the qualities which make runtimes easier or harder to simulate in our heads. This doesn't get talked about nearly enough.

The goal with re-frame was to have the simplest dynamic model possible because that, above all else, drives developer productivity.

So, let's talk about how re-frame delivers a simple dynamic model. We'll start off at a high level and then work our way down.

re-frame Time

A re-frame app progresses one event at a time through its computational/state space. The unit of time is one event.

Each event is entirely processed from beginning to end before the next event on the queue is processed. re-frame does not support the idea that an event can be "suspended" and then, later, restarted. A re-frame app is only ever doing one thing (one event) at a time.

Also, when an event changes application state, it does so transactionally (instantly), in one fell swoop, not incrementally.

So, at a high level, re-frame delivers dynamics in discrete units, with a clear start and end, which can then be understood and analysed independently.

But, how about one level down, within the processing of a single event? What about those dynamics?

Processing An Event

Do you remember those "theory of computation" lectures at Uni? The most limited kind of computation, and as a consequence, the easiest dynamic process to simulate in your head, was called a Finite State Machine.

At the other end of the computational spectrum were Turing Machines. You can compute anything with a Turing Machine, which is awesome, right? Anything. Fantastic. But there might be a cost: your programming keyboard has now become a loaded gun. Is your foot safe?

just because you can, doesn't mean you should

re-frame's overarching process for handling a single event is one part "Finite State Machine" and one part dataflow.

The event-handling process proceeds step by step through a linear set of logical states, which you know already as "The Dominoes". Only one state at a time is happening, and in each state there is specific behaviour/computation, and each of them is sufficiently isolated from the others that it can be understood and analysed independently. You can comfortably "zoom in" to understand each part, ignoring the rest.

The re-frame docs don't formally talk about FSMs and, instead, presents it as a "data flow" which causes transitions from one state to another. But the dominos are like a simple FSM "in nature". And, consequently, each event is processed using a simple kind of computation, making it easy to simulate in your head.

Less Is More

At this level, re-frame is less powerful by design. It delivers the minimum amount of power necessary to get the job done. Instead of providing computation with many degrees of freedom and occasional magic, it will give you simplicity and certainty.

Less Is Scary

Offering programmers less computational power makes them uncomfortable. We live in a world where requirements change on us all the time and often in unexpected and unwelcome ways. For our protection, so we can handle these unexpected requirements, we are attracted to more power, not less.

But let's now go deeper again. But what about the dynamics within each individual Domino?

Pure Functions

Within a Domino, we are back to programming with the Turing complete power of ClojureScript. Thankfully, to harness and control that frightening power, you write pure functions and use immutable data.

Pure functions stand outside of "time". To understand them, you don't need to know "when" they were run and the state of the system at that point. Instead, you need only know the value of the actual arguments.

The tyranny of time is still present on the inside of a pure function, because there is an internal flow of execution. So, you might still need to simulate that in your head. But a pure function delivers a smaller dynamic process to understand - one that is more cognitively tractable.

But wait, there's more.

We provide data to a pure function as arguments, and they return data, and this data is immutable. This acts to decouple a pure function from any "place" - it is insulated from where data is put.

Because pure functions are decoupled from both "time" and "place", they can be composed in a maximally mathematical way. This greatly dampens the complexity of runtime dynamics.

Banana Issues

Non-pure functions "reach out" and grab a value from the global space beyond their arguments.

You wanted a banana but what you got was a gorilla holding the banana and the entire jungle.

-- Joe Armstrong, creator of the Erlang programming language

To understand a function that grabs a banana, you must also understand the entire dynamics associated with changes in the jungle. You must reason globally, not locally. Which is often difficult.


Declarative programming means saying "make X happen", but not needing to specify how.

So, it abstracts away the process, which collapses the associated dynamics.

re-frame has a lot of "declarative" happening. Reagent is a powerful declarative DOM capability. Events are declarative. Effects are declarative. The Signal Graph is declarative.

And all this "declarative" is done with data-based DSLs, as is the Clojure way.

Data DSLs

Have you noticed that "declarative" is better when the DSL is defined in data?

For example, Hiccup is an excellent DSL, and it is data. In the simple case, just data literals, but computation can be added to generate the data. SQL is string-based. As literals that's okay, but it completely sucks if we have to start computing the string. And regexs? Oof. A string-based DSL for a powerful, occasionally surprising computational paradigm.

State Management

Nothing screams "complicated dynamics" more than needing to "distribute state". Well, other than appending "... over unreliable networks".

This is, of course, why OO can be problematic. How on earth did we ever think that deliberately distributing state into hidden little mutable packets and then having to dynamically synchronise them was a good idea? And, Your Honour, I was as guilty as the rest.

re-frame puts state in the one place and updates it once per event cycle, in one fell swoop. You never need to worry that the app is in some slightly inconsistent intermediate state. And you don't need to worry about the dynamics of communicating changes from one "store" of state to another.

Also, in one fell swoop, you can check if all the state in your app (all of it!) conforms to a schema. And that includes any data which just arrived over the wire from the server.

Incident report - "Simple Dynamic Process"

While re-frame normally has a simple dynamic process, we acknowledge fat tail risk.

On May 12th, at approximately 12:47am, re-frame became self-aware. It printed a single console log: "Oh, really? I'll show you a simple dynamic process, f#$%ers".

Although a nuclear winter did follow, humans ultimately prevailed over the robot army, and the bug was found and fixed. So, all good. But if ever you notice a Signal Graph adopting a Cortex structure, we still recommend a precautionary reboot.


re-frame apps are simple to simulate in your head, and there are consequences - all of them good.

This simplicity arises from a combination of factors. On this page, we have reviewed re-frame layer by layer, starting at a high level with how events are handled one after the other in a discrete way. Then, how a single event is handled step by step in a FSM-like way. Then, how pure functions and immutable data dramatically dampen dynamics. Then, through to how declarative data-based DSLs are used in multiple places. And, finally, at how there is only one store of State and how it is updated only once per event cycle in a transactional way.

Recently, at a local Clojure meetup, I was talking to an experienced programmer, and I was thrilled to hear him say the following (in a slightly distracted way, almost as if surprised by the realisation):

Been using re-frame for nine months now. Do you know what's odd? I find myself writing fewer tests these days since I started using re-frame.

So, an experienced (self-regulating) programmer who has previously written a lot of tests, is instinctively writing fewer tests, surprising even himself a bit with the decision. I believe his intuitions are telling him it is safe to do so. He is reacting to the simplicity he is experiencing.

N of 1, sure. But there's almost no better recommendation than this. I was delighted.

Appendix A - On Reified Dynamics

I said above that program dynamics don't get enough attention, but there are some notable exceptions.

In his 2012 Learnable Programming treatise, Brett Victor begins:

Thus, the goals of a programming system should be:
1. to support and encourage powerful ways of thinking
2. to enable programmers to see and understand the execution of their programs

He is not concerned with the static aspects of code. Instead, both of his goals focus on the dynamics of systems and, one level up, on the dynamics of systems development.

To demonstrate his first goal, Brett Victor showed a demonstration of how a programmer might directly manipulate code (er, values in code) and observe the implications of their changes instantly. The demo was highly visual and motivating, but the program concerned was small. I don't know about you, but my applications tend to be larger and more prosaic. They have buttons, and they grind on data. It was difficult to see how the concept would "scale up" to my world. Having said that, a ClojureScript programmer can receive excellent, near-instant feedback via hot code reloading, REPLs, and instant event replays. These don't fully deliver the direct manipulation in Brett Victor's demo, but they aren't too bad compared to, say, long compilation cycles.

Brett Victor's second goal aligns with the theme of this tutorial, and, on this point, we have plans. We want to give the re-frame programmer deep insight into program execution. Wouldn't it be good if a programmer did not have to struggle with mental simulations? Instead, imagine if they could observe and interact with a reification of program execution after the event. Our tool, re-frame-10x, has the aspirational goal of pragmatically delivering on Brett Victor's second goal for larger, industry-grade programming tasks.

Our method is to reify, as data, the dynamics of an application when it handles an event. You should be able to observe every single "form" of ClojureScript code executed in the process. No need to imagine how the code executed because you can see it in concrete terms. That's our vision. Our goal is completely achievable, but we're only part the way there with the implementation. Check out re-frame-10x.